Is the role of a political party in democracy active or passive?
Bhaktapur – Human beings live in society and they create some rules and regulations to exercise their activities. Aristotle said that “Man is a political animal”. Their desires are unlimited but sources are so limited. On the other hand, they want to become powerful everywhere like among society etc. however they are under nature, science and humanity. When they face many problems then they propound a resolve procedure to gain satisfaction. Indeed, they have to develop a system to address all interests, which system is the reflection of the will and wish of the society.
Democracy originally derived from two Greek words ‘demos’ means people and ‘cratia’ means rule. It is an effective ruling system in which people’s voice, need and demand, directly or indirectly have share in the public administration where the supreme power is vested in the people. 16th US president Abrahan lincon said that “the democracy is the government of people, by the people, for the people”, that was practiced in ancient Greek cities about three thousand (3000) years ago.
Likewise, the political party is an organized group of people, having the same ideology, policy and program like Nepal Communist Party, BJP, Republic Party, soviet communist party etc. The primary goal of a political party has to govern, then implement their thought, agenda, decision on behalf of the government administration, properly. The ruling party and opposition party are involved in democratic system.
Origin and Growth, The democracy was held in 508 – 507BC in ancient Greek city during classical antiquity. Magna carta, 1215 protected civil rights like freedom, equality, dignity etc and bounded the king by it. Bill of Rights, 1689 gave some rights to people such as equality before law, fair justice, freedom and right to property etc. Habes corpus Act, 1640 had safeguarding individual freedom against unlawful imprisonment with right to appeal. The modern democratic system of England was established in 1707. The democracy was established China in 1911 A.D. by people’s revolution led by Komintang party.
The concept of political party was developed in 17th century with European industrial revolution as well as the concept of representative political system, sovereignty and democracy. The modern concept of political party was developed by the U.S.A., U.K. and European countries too.
The political party was established in U.K.(1679 A.D. ,Toris whigs), France(1775 A.D.), Switzerland(1848 A.D.), Former USSR or Russia(1882A.D.), India(1885), Japan(1889A.D.), China(before 1911 A.D., Komintang party), Nepal(1935 A.D. Parja Parishad), Bhutan(1997 A.D.).
The popularity of democracy is increasing day by day due to life, liberty, equality and dignity of a person are included in the basic principle of democracy. And its backbone is election. We cannot imagine modern forms of democracy except the presence of responsible, accountable democratic political parties.
In case of Nepal, in 1997 B.S., first fight for democracy, Shukra Raj Shastri(1950 – Magh 10, 1997 , religious activist), Dharmabhakta Mathema(1965 – Magh 12, 1997), Gangalal Shrestha(1975 – Magh 14,1997), Dasarath Chanda(1960 – Magh 14,1997) were obtained the capital punishment by the state because they had been conducting activities with the purpose of establishing democracy when Tribhuvan was the king and Judda Samsher was the prime minister.
In Falgun 7, 2007 B.S., the democracy with monarchy system was established by the people’s revolution led by nepali congress, the second fight for democracy. In 2046B.S. peoples movement (1) brought in democracy ending in active monarchy system, third fight.
Another most important fight for democracy had held in 2062 B.S. that was also called peoples movement (2) in which a seven party alliance with Maoist had. On Jestha 15, 2065 Nepal became a republic country, fourth or successful fight. 25 people had become martyrs in this movement. Praja parishad was established in Jestha 20, 1993 in Nepal which played a vital role to create people’s movement to wipe out feudal, autocratic ruling system.
In democracy, politics as an arena, power, compromise and consensus and instrument which regulate the art of government and public affairs in accordance with manifesto, vision and collective intention of political parties. Equality and independence are addressed as the most important principle of democracy.
Identification, representative, access and dignity of people are addressed in direct and indirect democracy. Referendum, plebiscite, initiative are key features of direct democracy and representatives are elected by the people to govern rule in indirect democracy. The party in majority is entitled to rule under a certain jurisdiction as well as political, social and cultural interest of the government and those in minority are opposition playing a constructive role in favor of people that provision protects the ruling party from being autocratic that is also the core merit of democratic system.
In the context of Nepal, the government of Nepal has accepted multi-party, competitive, federal, democratic, republican, parliamentary forms of government based on pluralism however the basic merits of democratic system have not shown by the work nature and achievement of government and political parties duly due to they have forgotten the national political, social and economic interest of the country as well as they have taken personal interest that are so against our provision and national goal. In every situation, the government should be accountable with the legislature or supreme public welfare area. Hence, the political parties of Nepal ought not to have forgotten the concept of democratic legislature, responsible executive and independent, competent judiciary as per the principle of separation of power.
The major duty of a political party in democracy is to safeguard the civil, political, economic, social, cultural and collective rights of people for the purpose of maintaining the survival, participation, protection and development factors of every people. The political party should exercise fairness about the democratic legislature, responsible executive and independent, competent judiciary pursuant the doctrine of separation of power, check and balance.
Implement policy and program in accordance with sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, rule of law, human rights elements and public accountability, lunching movement as per political, legal and moral responsibility, performing applicable conflict and cooperation among people and state, be accountable with people and representatives, increase predictability and the transparency of policy outcomes, establish the equal authority of citizens on the basis of rights and duties and to ensure that the prevalent constitution and laws are applied to everybody poor, rich, politically connected and other persons are the fundamental role of political parties in democracy.
At last, in democracy, the people’s authority is adjusted in extraordinary jurisdiction. The political parties should protect the supremacy of law by using government power or public force to establish and save the concept of democratic political system. In which, they can use legal, policies and institutional mechanisms to secure the basic goal of democracy. In this sort of ruling system (Democracy), the political party must prove that No man is above than law.
B.A.LL.B. 1st year
Kathmandu school of law
Suryavinayak-04 Dadhikot, Bhaktapur